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ENSO Discussion

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#1401
Webberweather53

Posted 30 July 2018 - 08:32 AM

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Why do you want a niño so bad?

 

What are you talking about, I'm just stating facts here, there's no need to get defensive or up in arms over NINO posts.



#1402
Jesse

Posted 30 July 2018 - 08:38 AM

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What are you talking about, I'm just stating facts here, there's no need to get defensive or up in arms over NINO posts.


It was a serious question. I thought maybe you lived in an area where niño climo favors more active winter wx.

#1403
Geos

Posted 30 July 2018 - 08:42 AM

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Some pockets of warmer water, but nothing crazy yet.

 

cdas-sflux_ssta_global_1.png

 

Nice cold pocket off the West Coast now.


Finn Hill, elevation: 460 ft
2018 moisture: 27.16", 10/9

Lowest Temp of Autumn 2018: 36°, 10/03

 

2017-2018 winter snowfall total: 9.0", 2016-2017: 14.0"

Weather station/wx cam: http://map.bloomsky....qBxp6apnJSnqqm2
https://www.wundergr...OTHE144#history


#1404
Webberweather53

Posted 30 July 2018 - 08:43 AM

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It was a serious question. I thought maybe you lived in an area where niño climo favors more active winter wx.

 

I live in the southeastern US so winters here can be more active but I really don't care because NINO winters usually feature huge gradients in snowfall over central and western NC that screws over my particular area relative to climo favored areas to my NW. I talked about a double NINA about a year and a half ago while most were still convinced a NINO was coming in 2017, so I'm pretty unbiased.


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#1405
Phil

Posted 30 July 2018 - 09:04 AM

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Why do you want a niño so bad?


I don’t think he “wants” a niño. He’s simply seeing a signal for one, and is sticking to his guns on the idea. Very respectable IMO and it’s something I wish more meteorologists would do, instead of waffling with every run of the CFSv2.

We have too many model-ologists out there already.
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#1406
Esquimalt

Posted 31 July 2018 - 11:32 AM

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What do you think the winter holds for the PNW if it does go weak El Nino?  What do analogs tell us?  



#1407
Webberweather53

Posted 07 August 2018 - 06:20 AM

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Now that's the kind of WWB this El Nino event needs.

 

u.anom.30.5S-5N.gif



#1408
iFred

Posted 07 August 2018 - 08:34 AM

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What do you think the winter holds for the PNW if it does go weak El Nino?  What do analogs tell us?  

 

Weak ENSO's mean variability with storms, dry air, snow events, etc. IIRC, 2006-07 was a weak Nina.



#1409
TT-SEA

Posted 07 August 2018 - 08:36 AM

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Now that's the kind of WWB this El Nino event needs.

 

u.anom.30.5S-5N.gif

 

 

So its about to get stronger?   



#1410
Phil

Posted 07 August 2018 - 09:32 AM

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So its about to get stronger?


If it continues, then yes. I still think the periodicity of the intraseasonals is on the high side (hence the very slow establishment of a low frequency component..more-so than any of the modern niños I can find).

So I’m stubbornly hugging the idea of the slow walk into the 2019/20 niño with this being more of an onset year than a climax year. I’m not sure it will meet the CPC’s ONI criteria until at least JFM.

I thought we might head-fake into niño conditions in A/S/O this year, but so far it’s run a bit cooler than I thought.
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#1411
Front Ranger

Posted 07 August 2018 - 10:43 AM

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If it continues, then yes. I still think the periodicity of the intraseasonals is on the high side (hence the very slow establishment of a low frequency component..more-so than any of the modern niños I can find).

So I’m stubbornly hugging the idea of the slow walk into the 2019/20 niño with this being more of an onset year than a climax year. I’m not sure it will meet the CPC’s ONI criteria until at least JFM.

I thought we might head-fake into niño conditions in A/S/O this year, but so far it’s run a bit cooler than I thought.


So now you're hedging towards an actual Nino. Head faked the head fake.

Smart man.

Cool anomalies soothe the soul.


#1412
Phil

Posted 07 August 2018 - 11:54 AM

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So now you're hedging towards an actual Nino. Head faked the head fake.

Smart man.


What? Nothing’s changed.

I’ve been calling for the inception of a niño in 2019/20 for several years now, based on solar cycle/IPWP resonance(s) thru extratropical conduits.

And a multi-year niña in the early 2020s as well (centered in 2021 and 2022).
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#1413
weatherfan2012

Posted 07 August 2018 - 12:06 PM

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Weak ENSO's mean variability with storms, dry air, snow events, etc. IIRC, 2006-07 was a weak Nina.

2006-2007 was actually an El nino I remember that winter well here in the eastern seaboard it started off very warm December first hafe of January then the bottom fell out and february was very cold with the all out sleet ice storm Valentine's day 2007.the next winter was when we went into a moderate to strong nina which was 2007-2008.

#1414
Front Ranger

Posted 07 August 2018 - 12:06 PM

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Just so there’s no misunderstanding, I’m not expecting a collapse to cold neutral like 2012/13.

I think we’ll see the weak niño head fake during the second half of summer into early autumn (in terms of ONI) with a return to neutral or warm neutral during the late autumn and winter.

 

;)


Cool anomalies soothe the soul.


#1415
Phil

Posted 07 August 2018 - 12:10 PM

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;)


Yes, exactly. How is that any different than what I’m calling for now?

Maybe you should read more carefully next time.
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#1416
Phil

Posted 07 August 2018 - 12:17 PM

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For the record, Flatiron conveniently left out my follow-up post elaborating on my prediction of the evolution of this event.

I agree re: 2019/20. Will be interesting to watch unfold.

In the end, we’re really only 6 months apart here..my guess is the move to Niño begins JFM 2019 following an early-season SSW/MJO event around Christmas, you seem to think it will establish during ASO of this year. That’s really not very different in the grand scheme of things. 🤓


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#1417
Front Ranger

Posted 07 August 2018 - 12:41 PM

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For the record, Flatiron conveniently left out my follow-up post elaborating on my prediction of the evolution of this event.
 

 

It just seems that you've gradually moved more towards the eventual Nino camp over the last few months. At some points I swear you said you didn't think we'd see a true Nino in 2019-20. But I haven't closely followed every post in this thread.


Cool anomalies soothe the soul.


#1418
Phil

Posted 07 August 2018 - 12:46 PM

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It just seems that you've gradually moved more towards the eventual Nino camp over the last few months. At some points I swear you said you didn't think we'd see a true Nino in 2019-20. But I haven't closely followed every post in this thread.


You must have me confused with someone else.

If my outlook was changing, I’d make that be known, and explain my reasoning. No point in clinging to a sinking ship.
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#1419
seattleweatherguy

Posted 08 August 2018 - 10:06 PM

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I'm betting on a warm neutral with a few snows mixed in

#1420
Webberweather53

Posted 09 August 2018 - 05:34 AM

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Another neat NWP experiment came out in nature recently, finding some of what we already know in that cross-equatorial wind behavior in the Pacific favors a NINA base state and reduces ENSO amplitude in the model, and SSTAs shift westward.

https://www.nature.c...1558-018-0248-0


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#1421
Phil

Posted 09 August 2018 - 11:21 AM

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Another neat NWP experiment came out in nature recently, finding some of what we already know in that cross-equatorial wind behavior in the Pacific favors a NINA base state and reduces ENSO amplitude in the model, and SSTAs shift westward.
https://www.nature.c...1558-018-0248-0


That was a fascinating read! Thanks for this.
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#1422
MossMan

Posted 09 August 2018 - 04:53 PM

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Weak ENSO's mean variability with storms, dry air, snow events, etc. IIRC, 2006-07 was a weak Nina.

I would love a repeat of 06/07, what a fun active winter that was!!

#1423
Phil

Posted 09 August 2018 - 06:42 PM

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2006-2007 was actually an El nino I remember that winter well here in the eastern seaboard it started off very warm December first hafe of January then the bottom fell out and february was very cold with the all out sleet ice storm Valentine's day 2007.the next winter was when we went into a moderate to strong nina which was 2007-2008.


I remember that one! We had something like 5-8” of sleet on top of 1-2” of snow. Then some ZR to glaciate it before that surge of hurricane force winds blasted in behind the Arctic front. A truly unforgettable Feb/Mar that year.
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#1424
Phil

Posted 09 August 2018 - 09:45 PM

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Looks like another round of trades coming up after this WWB, according to the EPS. How potent/long-lasting they end up being is debatable, but the general theme (slow, hesitant, impotent transition into a more +ENSO-like circulation) remains the same.

Which still leads me to believe this is a 2014-like scenario with the slow walk into the +ENSO after the initial overshoot/head-fake, then the real deal comes later. Good chance it takes until early 2019 to cross the “official” niño threshold, and perhaps a legitimate moderate to strong niño could unfold for 2019/20.

Ksn8Xw2.jpg
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#1425
Jesse

Posted 09 August 2018 - 09:47 PM

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2014-15 was a fantastic fall and winter around these parts. Honestly cannot wait.

#1426
Deweydog

Posted 09 August 2018 - 09:48 PM

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2014-15 was a fantastic fall and winter around these parts. Honestly cannot wait.


Haha! That winter was pretty mild!

All roads lead to Walgreens.  


#1427
Phil

Posted 09 August 2018 - 09:56 PM

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2014-15 was a fantastic fall and winter around these parts. Honestly cannot wait.


I wasn’t trying to suggest it’s a great winter analog for the middle/high latitudes. There are other factors too.

Keep in mind 2014/15 occurred during the heart of solar maximum, which changed the manner in which the QBO/BDC affected the NAM/high latitude interplay w/ the tropics. It was the 2nd most +NAO winter on record.

This winter we have a legitimately quiet Sun (both in terms of solar wind/AP index and radiative fluxes). So we should avoid a semi-permanent Greenland/Arctic vortex, and might even pull off the first -NAO winter since 2010/11, given the timing of the QBO cycling favoring excess O^3 in the subtropics as the PV is developing under a slowly developing low frequency dateline forcing regime.
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#1428
Black Hole

Posted 12 August 2018 - 09:17 AM

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Another neat NWP experiment came out in nature recently, finding some of what we already know in that cross-equatorial wind behavior in the Pacific favors a NINA base state and reduces ENSO amplitude in the model, and SSTAs shift westward.

https://www.nature.c...1558-018-0248-0

I won't get a chance to read this till I am back at school tomorrow. Anyway, with regards to the westward focused SSTA's, are these similarly base shifted towards la nina, or is the westward shift because the eastern part of the basin is la nina shifted?


BS Atmospheric Science University of Utah May 2015

PhD Candidate Atmospheric Sciences

 

--Emphasis on: Forecasting, Mountain Weather, Numerical Weather Prediction, Data Assimilation

 

Winter 2017/2018

Dec 4: 3.2", 16: 0.9", 20: 2.1", 23: 1.5", 25: 4.6"

Jan 6: 1.5", 20: 10.8", 25: 1.5"

Feb 19: 8.6", 20: 2.4", 23: 7.1", 25: .5"

Mar 4: 13", 15: 1.8", 17: 5.3", 25: 4.2"

April 12: 1", 17: 1.3"

Total: 69.3"

 

 

Winter 2016/17 Snow:
Nov 17: 3.2", 23: 1.6", 28: 9.2" (14)

Dec 1: .5", 16: 2.5", 25: 13" (16)

Jan 2: 5", 3: 2.4", 4: 7.7", 12: 1", 19: 1.2", 21: 13", 23: 6", 24: 1", 25: 3.7", 26: 2.5" (43.5) 

Feb 11: .5", 23: 6.5", 27: 4.5" (13.5)

Mar 5: 5.5" (5.5)

Apr 8: 2", 9: 1.8" (3.8)

May 17: 1" (1)
Total: 96.3"

Lowest Temp: 2F


#1429
Phil

Posted 13 August 2018 - 07:35 AM

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Klaus Wolter has jumped onto the “head fake” train.

https://www.esrl.noa...v/psd/enso/mei/

gRgit54.jpg
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#1430
TT-SEA

Posted 13 August 2018 - 07:38 AM

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I have to give you credit Phil... you have not wavered and it looks like you are going to end up being right again. 


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#1431
luminen

Posted 13 August 2018 - 07:50 AM

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Klaus Wolter has jumped onto the “head fake” train.

https://www.esrl.noa...v/psd/enso/mei/

gRgit54.jpg

 

Encouraging news! May the *8/*9 rule continue!  :)


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#1432
Phil

Posted 13 August 2018 - 08:01 AM

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I have to give you credit Phil... you have not wavered and it looks like you are going to end up being right again.


Thanks, but we’ll see. At some point the lines between warm neutral and weak niño are blurred, as far as impacts are concerned. IMO, it’s really about how we choose to define these events. I’d personally prefer a scale without so many threshold-based criteria.
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#1433
TigerWoodsLibido

Posted 13 August 2018 - 08:19 AM

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Thanks, but we’ll see. At some point the lines between warm neutral and weak niño are blurred, as far as impacts are concerned. IMO, it’s really about how we choose to define these events. I’d personally prefer a scale without so many threshold-based criteria.


Thanks for all your insight and knowledge man. Giving us hope.
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Springfield, Oregon cold season 18-19 Stats:

Coldest high: 54 (Oct 5)
Coldest low: 35 (Oct 15)
Total snowfall: 0"
Last accumulating snowfall: February 21-22, 2018
Last sub-freezing high: Jan 13, 2017 (31)
Last White Christmas: 1985

Personal Stats:

Last accumulating snowfall : March 6, 2017
Last sub-freezing high: Jan 13, 2017 (31)
Last White Christmas: 2008

My Twitter @353jerseys4hope


#1434
Black Hole

Posted 13 August 2018 - 11:12 AM

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Whether this year becomes el nino or only stays warm-neutral it does seem that it will focus on the central pacific region. What sorts of analogs do we have based on that? How about based on MEI?
 


BS Atmospheric Science University of Utah May 2015

PhD Candidate Atmospheric Sciences

 

--Emphasis on: Forecasting, Mountain Weather, Numerical Weather Prediction, Data Assimilation

 

Winter 2017/2018

Dec 4: 3.2", 16: 0.9", 20: 2.1", 23: 1.5", 25: 4.6"

Jan 6: 1.5", 20: 10.8", 25: 1.5"

Feb 19: 8.6", 20: 2.4", 23: 7.1", 25: .5"

Mar 4: 13", 15: 1.8", 17: 5.3", 25: 4.2"

April 12: 1", 17: 1.3"

Total: 69.3"

 

 

Winter 2016/17 Snow:
Nov 17: 3.2", 23: 1.6", 28: 9.2" (14)

Dec 1: .5", 16: 2.5", 25: 13" (16)

Jan 2: 5", 3: 2.4", 4: 7.7", 12: 1", 19: 1.2", 21: 13", 23: 6", 24: 1", 25: 3.7", 26: 2.5" (43.5) 

Feb 11: .5", 23: 6.5", 27: 4.5" (13.5)

Mar 5: 5.5" (5.5)

Apr 8: 2", 9: 1.8" (3.8)

May 17: 1" (1)
Total: 96.3"

Lowest Temp: 2F


#1435
snow_wizard

Posted 09 September 2018 - 10:33 AM

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Strictly from a solar cycle point of view a Nino is very unlikely this winter.  We are in a very deep solar minimum with activity still dropping.  2006-07 did manage to acheive a Nino under such conditions, but the winter was atypical for a Nino winter in the NW.  October through much of January were awesome that season.


Death To Warm Anomalies!

 

Winter 2018-19 stats

 

Total Snowfall = 0.0"

Coldest Low = 35

Lows 32 or below = 0

Highs 32 or below = 0

Lows Below 20 = 0

Highs 40 or below = 0

 

 


#1436
snow_wizard

Posted 09 September 2018 - 10:40 AM

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FWIW the Jul / Aug MEI of .132 also means a Nino is pretty unlikely.  There has never been a Nino in the winter following such a low Jul / Aug MEI in the poeriod of record.


Death To Warm Anomalies!

 

Winter 2018-19 stats

 

Total Snowfall = 0.0"

Coldest Low = 35

Lows 32 or below = 0

Highs 32 or below = 0

Lows Below 20 = 0

Highs 40 or below = 0

 

 


#1437
Phil

Posted 09 September 2018 - 10:54 AM

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Strictly from a solar cycle point of view a Nino is very unlikely this winter. We are in a very deep solar minimum with activity still dropping. 2006-07 did manage to acheive a Nino under such conditions, but the winter was atypical for a Nino winter in the NW. October through much of Janaury were awesome that season.


I would argue that low solar actually primes the system for more frequent (and weaker) El Niños in the long run, which is not a bad thing for the PNW the longer it goes on.

Keep in mind, the LIA/1600-1800 period was dominated by weak +ENSO/equatorward convection, while the MWP was dominated by -ENSO/off-equator convection.

The mode of circulation associated with +ENSO/-NAM and equatorward z-cells/subtropical highs actually produces a relatively large heat budget deficit that cools the globe over time, via more favorably located convection for diabatic ventilation and albedo. And the resulting feedback (a tightening of the LTG/EF feedback structure to further dampen poleward advection thru the ET-NATL conduit) helps to sustain the regime peripherally. Meanwhile, the opposite is true for -ENSO/+NAM.
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#1438
Brian_in_Leavenworth

Posted 09 September 2018 - 10:54 AM

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Update from Klaus Wolter:  "Compared to last month, the updated (July-August) MEI remained flat at +0.13, ending up right in the middle of ENSO-neutral rankings. This means that not a single season has reached El Niño conditions in 2018. Looking at the nearest 12 rankings (+6/-6) in this season, and excluding all cases that departed by more than 0.4 standard deviations in the changes from the previous month as well as three months earlier (April-May), there are eight analogues to the situation this season: 1953,'59,'69,'80,'81,'90,'00, and '03. Six of these cases remained ENSO-neutral, while only one ('69) briefly reached El Niño conditions, and one slipped back into La Niña'00). This confirms last month's assessment that El Niño remains "very unlikely" in 2018


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#1439
Brian_in_Leavenworth

Posted 09 September 2018 - 10:57 AM

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Update from Klaus Wolter:  "Compared to last month, the updated (July-August) MEI remained flat at +0.13, ending up right in the middle of ENSO-neutral rankings. This means that not a single season has reached El Niño conditions in 2018. Looking at the nearest 12 rankings (+6/-6) in this season, and excluding all cases that departed by more than 0.4 standard deviations in the changes from the previous month as well as three months earlier (April-May), there are eight analogues to the situation this season: 1953,'59,'69,'80,'81,'90,'00, and '03. Six of these cases remained ENSO-neutral, while only one ('69) briefly reached El Niño conditions, and one slipped back into La Niña'00). This confirms last month's assessment that El Niño remains "very unlikely" in 2018

 

Not that he is predicting La Nina, but he also says:

"With the MEI showing ENSO-neutral conditions, four key anomalies in the MEI component fields flag La Niña, compared to only one for El Niño. Key anomalies refer to values in excess of one standard deviation, or one sigma in support of either ENSO phase (compare to loadings figure).

Significant positive anomalies (coinciding with high negative loadings) denote high sea level pressure (P) anomalies over the eastern equatorial Pacific, southerly wind anomalies (V) to the north of the Equator and south of Hawai'i, and unusually warm temperatures (S and A) northeast of Australia. All of these anomalies are indicators of La Niña.

On the other hand, westerly wind anomalies (U) along and north of the Equator from the Maritime Continent to the dateline flag emerging El Niño conditions."


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#1440
Geos

Posted 10 September 2018 - 08:09 AM

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SST anomaly for region 3.4 has risen a bit, but nothing significant. 

I think quite a few forecasters are going to be wrong about this winters forecast as it stands now.

nino34.png


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Finn Hill, elevation: 460 ft
2018 moisture: 27.16", 10/9

Lowest Temp of Autumn 2018: 36°, 10/03

 

2017-2018 winter snowfall total: 9.0", 2016-2017: 14.0"

Weather station/wx cam: http://map.bloomsky....qBxp6apnJSnqqm2
https://www.wundergr...OTHE144#history


#1441
snow_wizard

Posted 16 September 2018 - 12:10 PM

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Nino 3.4 has almost dropped to zero now.  An El Nino this winter would be a tall order at this point.  I could certainly live with warm neutral.  We often get good winters with that.


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Death To Warm Anomalies!

 

Winter 2018-19 stats

 

Total Snowfall = 0.0"

Coldest Low = 35

Lows 32 or below = 0

Highs 32 or below = 0

Lows Below 20 = 0

Highs 40 or below = 0

 

 


#1442
Brian_in_Leavenworth

Posted 16 September 2018 - 12:25 PM

Brian_in_Leavenworth

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Nino 3.4 has almost dropped to zero now.  An El Nino this winter would be a tall order at this point.  I could certainly live with warm neutral.  We often get good winters with that.

The sub-surface anomalies are not that impressive either.  



#1443
TigerWoodsLibido

Posted 16 September 2018 - 11:00 PM

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Nino 3.4 has almost dropped to zero now. An El Nino this winter would be a tall order at this point. I could certainly live with warm neutral. We often get good winters with that.


Excellent news.

Springfield, Oregon cold season 18-19 Stats:

Coldest high: 54 (Oct 5)
Coldest low: 35 (Oct 15)
Total snowfall: 0"
Last accumulating snowfall: February 21-22, 2018
Last sub-freezing high: Jan 13, 2017 (31)
Last White Christmas: 1985

Personal Stats:

Last accumulating snowfall : March 6, 2017
Last sub-freezing high: Jan 13, 2017 (31)
Last White Christmas: 2008

My Twitter @353jerseys4hope


#1444
snow_wizard

Posted 16 September 2018 - 11:16 PM

snow_wizard

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Latest update shows Nino 3.4 below the zero line for the first time since spring.  Didn't see that one coming.  Even if a Nino develops at some point during this cold season Oct through Dec should be just fine, because it would take some time for the atmosphere to react.


Death To Warm Anomalies!

 

Winter 2018-19 stats

 

Total Snowfall = 0.0"

Coldest Low = 35

Lows 32 or below = 0

Highs 32 or below = 0

Lows Below 20 = 0

Highs 40 or below = 0

 

 


#1445
Dan the Weatherman

Posted 16 September 2018 - 11:51 PM

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Nino 3.4 has almost dropped to zero now.  An El Nino this winter would be a tall order at this point.  I could certainly live with warm neutral.  We often get good winters with that.

 

I don't believe we are going to have an El Nino this winter, either. If we were, it would be either strengthening right now, or would already be more developed at this point.



#1446
Brian_in_Leavenworth

Posted 17 September 2018 - 08:21 AM

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Looks like no strengthening of the fledging nino anytime soon, in fact looks like more weakening:

 

 

Attached File  Inkedu.anom.30.5S-5N.gif   195.75KB   1 downloads

Attached Files


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#1447
AbbyJr

Posted 30 September 2018 - 09:35 PM

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I'm with those who are doubtful we see a full on El Nino this winter. Most likely neutral, possibly sneaking into weak El Nino conditions. This year we are in very low solar, so I am confident this winter will be fine. Should be able to get at least one or two cold and snow events in the Pacific Northwest in my opinion. I could be being a bit too optimistic, though I hope not because I really don't want to see a mild and dry winter.


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#1448
daniel1

Posted 01 October 2018 - 06:09 AM

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Lol all you
Guys are wish casters. Virtually everything right now is pointing to increasing El Niño conditions as a strong WWB is currently forecast to keep going. Enjoy your cold and snow now cuz it’ll likely be different during the heart of winter.

#1449
Phil

Posted 01 October 2018 - 07:35 AM

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Lol all you
Guys are wish casters. Virtually everything right now is pointing to increasing El Niño conditions as a strong WWB is currently forecast to keep going. Enjoy your cold and snow now cuz it’ll likely be different during the heart of winter.


Pot meet kettle. ;)
Personal Weather Station, Live Stream on Wunderground: https://www.wundergr...pwsdash#history

#1450
Black Hole

Posted 01 October 2018 - 07:44 AM

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It does look like a good WWB will occur the next 1-2 weeks, which should help the ENSO regions see some warming, but as usual, the question is can it sustain itself. We will have to see going forwards, but with enough of a WBB we will push into weak El nino considering all of the warm subsurface water. 


BS Atmospheric Science University of Utah May 2015

PhD Candidate Atmospheric Sciences

 

--Emphasis on: Forecasting, Mountain Weather, Numerical Weather Prediction, Data Assimilation

 

Winter 2017/2018

Dec 4: 3.2", 16: 0.9", 20: 2.1", 23: 1.5", 25: 4.6"

Jan 6: 1.5", 20: 10.8", 25: 1.5"

Feb 19: 8.6", 20: 2.4", 23: 7.1", 25: .5"

Mar 4: 13", 15: 1.8", 17: 5.3", 25: 4.2"

April 12: 1", 17: 1.3"

Total: 69.3"

 

 

Winter 2016/17 Snow:
Nov 17: 3.2", 23: 1.6", 28: 9.2" (14)

Dec 1: .5", 16: 2.5", 25: 13" (16)

Jan 2: 5", 3: 2.4", 4: 7.7", 12: 1", 19: 1.2", 21: 13", 23: 6", 24: 1", 25: 3.7", 26: 2.5" (43.5) 

Feb 11: .5", 23: 6.5", 27: 4.5" (13.5)

Mar 5: 5.5" (5.5)

Apr 8: 2", 9: 1.8" (3.8)

May 17: 1" (1)
Total: 96.3"

Lowest Temp: 2F