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Weather modification means somehow, on a local or regional basis, to dramatically change the character of weather. It's not raining- changed to-it's now raining. Weather moderation means modestly changing the existing weather for a better, more beneficial condition. Its raining too much in a flood prone area- changed to- some of the excess rain is translocated to a drier area.

Many Western states now attempt weather modification with cloud seeding using silver iodide crystals or salt and smoke particles. The effectiveness is still under study. California, for example, uses cloud seeding in an attempt to increase snow in the Sierra Mountains. By definition, moisture in the atmosphere must be available and that moisture that comes down as rain is removed from the atmosphere. It's a dramatic change because without cloud seeding maybe that moisture would provide snow in the Utah mountains. In the West, stealing someone's water is bad juju .

On the other hand, if it's raining so much that Western coastal areas are in flood, somehow moving that excess rain to the high mountains as snow is termed moderation. Most of the rain that floods the coast is lost to the sea. So moving some of that excess moisture (as rain-runoff) from the coast to the high mountains (as snow-stored) is beneficial. It's raining-Moderation applied-it's still raining. No moisture is stolen from the atmospheric river.

The weather modification case is bad as moisture that could be shared or intercepted by other mountains of the  West is "stolen" by the Sierra cloud seeding effort. The weather moderation case is beneficial in that it saves moisture that would otherwise flood to the sea and saves it as snow. My following post will discuss my moderation method and the evidence I have gathered to demonstrate that the method works.

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Before moving on to talk about my moderation method, a few words about how I chose the the term aquariusradar. Aquarius is the deity of the ancients frequently called the water bearer and the so named constellation is often depicted as a figure carrying a water urn from which water pours. Sometimes good sometimes bad, depending on the ancient civilization, I prefer to think of it as in Ancient Egypt:  In Egyptian Mythology, people who populated dry lands thought of Aquarius as a charitable deity who made rainfall when they needed it for farming. Hey, maybe a little over the top, but I had to call it something.

As the name implies, radar (microwave energy) is used to transport water (rain) from an undesirable location (flood) to desirable storage (snowpack, urban greenbelt, aquifer recharge, etc.) And just as obvious, it won't work unless it's already raining. It stands to reason if the coast is receiving gentle soaking rain, it won't be used. But if flood is occurring on coastal rivers , then it can be used to transport excess rain to higher elevations or further away from the coast to possible storage. Next- the scientific background.

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In the 1960s, Dr. Edward Lorenz, pioneer weather researcher, discovered the important math that later helped develop and  defined the physics of chaos theory; later responsible for the ideas about fractals and popularly called the butterfly effect. Most of this is really beyond my scope and grasp of mathematics. But the important point about why weather is impacted by Lorenz's discovery is how much weather is controlled by dynamics and that the biggest dynamic rain making cloud is the cumulonimbus (CN ) thunderstorm.

Dr. Lorenz discovered that in natural fast developing systems like CN clouds, that are best described by dynamic non-linear equations, tiny changes at the start of a chain of repetitive actions has large effects on the final outcome. 

Microwave energy can heat (speed up) water molecules. Water for tea and coffee can be heated to the boiling point with the home microwave. At a much greater distance, the aquariusradar can heat the water molecules at the base of the developing CN cloud only a tiny amount. Repeated over and over, that tiny amount of heating inhibits the coalescence of water molecules around seed dust particles, ice crystals, etc. and the growth of targeted CN clouds is slowed and stopped altogether in continued for a long time.

Aquariusradar slows the growth of targeted CN and inhibits rainfall. The next post will discuss how that inhibition and competition from neighboring CN clouds can be put to advantage.

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Posted (edited)

The best way to blunt the forces of drought is water storage. Here are some ways aquariusradar can be used to store water while helping a poor weather condition.

Snowpack enhancement is available all along the West coast of Washington, Oregon, and California. The intense rainfall of Infrequent atmospheric rivers (Pineapple Express) can flood the coastal areas of the western coast.  Mountain snow is often the blessing of the atmospheric rivers as it encounters high peaks.

Aquariusradar targets  CN cells as they approach and cross over the coastline and diminish the rainfall of the CN cell over the flood zone. By heating the water molecules at the base of the cloud by a tiny amount, adiabatic leverage is obtained. The condensation rate is slowed and the latent heat is preserved in the water molecule. The rapid growth of CN is dependent on available moisture and the released latent heat of condensation. CN clouds rarely occur alone. CN clouds compete for moisture and when a CN cloud has inhibited growth, surrounding CN cells will take up the extra available moisture. In this example, those storms not tempered and which continue towards the elevation of the snow line of coastal mountains will produce more snow. Rainfall is moved from flood to snowpack storage.






Edited by AquariusRadar
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The sketches used in the previous post are also used to illustrate the urban stormwater abatement case. In recent days Nashville, Tn. was pummeled again by training CN thunderstorms that flooded the city. Aquariusradar, with a narrow pencil beam antenna pattern, radiates microwave energy directly on the base of the CN cloud headed for the city center. That thunderstorm is tempered such that it produces less rainfall on the rooftops and concrete of the city center that cannot absorb any water. The flood waters of the city center rush out and aggravate the flooding on the city suburbs. Other CN cells outside the city center take up the added available moisture and grow to produce more rainfall in the greenbelt or aquifer recharge that surrounds the city. The total local rainfall is unchanged. The rainfall is moved from flood to storage.

Using cloud seeding to "make it rain" is cheating mother nature by taking someone's rainfall. Cloudseeding is weather modification.

Aquariusradar cannot make it rain more. It can only move that excess rainfall to storage. Aquariusradar is weather moderation.

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Jumping ahead of several more applications (hail suppression and tornado tempering), I think aquariusradar could be used in combating the western states drought. Several days ago, an upper level low developed off the west coast. The low is maintaining and perhaps deepening as it moves northeast. Some CN lightening is observed on the north side of the circulation. In the same time period, a large patch of moisture is streaming away from the ITCZ and is now southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. Looks like maybe some of that moisture could eventually be pulled into the circulation. Is this a developing Pineapple Express as illustrated in this NOAA graphic?...or will the blocking high pressure squash this as well?


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Using the low level IR water vapor images as reference, that low pressure trough has survived and now has pushed down as far as just north of the Hawaiian Islands. Kinda looks like the branch tributary jet shown in the NOAA diagrams. The progress might be similar to the "3-5 days" sketch in the NOAA scenario. Trouble is there is no big plume of low level moisture near the W 170 degree region. Some small amount of low level moisture is seen in Southern California- just enough to keep lenticular clouds downwind of the Mt. Whitney, Russell, Williams area. Maybe the larger moisture plume near W 150 will be intercepted as the trough continues south. Waiting to see with fingers crossed.

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The scenario can’t make any progress as the MJO is in a negative phase for the 160-170 West longitude area so the ITCZ in this zone is very quiet. No moisture is being drawn north. That patch of low level water vapor off the Central California coast isn’t receiving any nourishment and the low circulation can’t shoulder its’ way east as the high continues to block the flow. The dry air of the high is more massive than the thin clouds and water vapor. The dry air of the blocking high desiccates the light cloud cover at the coastal edge.

If some heavy weight clouds, like CN, were in the mix of northward moisture flow from the ITCZ,  the low pressure could grow to a powerful storm that pushes the high out of the path and continue on the east- northeast track it naturally follows. In order to grow into a powerful storm, the low cyclone needs more moisture and the aquariusradar could provide that moisture by operating from ships at sea.  With the addition of GPS and modern NWS type radar pointing information, the technology is available as seen in the photo of this NASA ship used during the Apollo program of the 1960s.

By tempering CN cells from the south side of the storm line of the ITCZ in the 150-170 West area, when the MJO is in the positive phase, CN cells that are to the north take up that extra moisture. Aquariusradar slows the growth of CN cells and keeps the water aloft and ultimately prevents the cell from raining down the majority of water lifted by the natural forces and instability of the ITCZ so that the anvil tops of CN cells can leave the area of the ITCZ containing massive amounts of water aloft. The Hadley cell circulation steers these water packets into the domain of the low and provides for growth. The low can now pierce the high pressure shield and rain to the west coast.

There is a little more activity in the 170 longitude of the ITCZ this morning and the MJO may be approaching positive in that area. It is cold in Europe and the cool in Eastern US. Winter in the Northern Hemisphere is not quite over.


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