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Weather modification means somehow, on a local or regional basis, to dramatically change the character of weather. It's not raining- changed to-it's now raining. Weather moderation means modestly changing the existing weather for a better, more beneficial condition. Its raining too much in a flood prone area- changed to- some of the excess rain is translocated to a drier area.

Many Western states now attempt weather modification with cloud seeding using silver iodide crystals or salt and smoke particles. The effectiveness is still under study. California, for example, uses cloud seeding in an attempt to increase snow in the Sierra Mountains. By definition, moisture in the atmosphere must be available and that moisture that comes down as rain is removed from the atmosphere. It's a dramatic change because without cloud seeding maybe that moisture would provide snow in the Utah mountains. In the West, stealing someone's water is bad juju .

On the other hand, if it's raining so much that Western coastal areas are in flood, somehow moving that excess rain to the high mountains as snow is termed moderation. Most of the rain that floods the coast is lost to the sea. So moving some of that excess moisture (as rain-runoff) from the coast to the high mountains (as snow-stored) is beneficial. It's raining-Moderation applied-it's still raining. No moisture is stolen from the atmospheric river.

The weather modification case is bad as moisture that could be shared or intercepted by other mountains of the  West is "stolen" by the Sierra cloud seeding effort. The weather moderation case is beneficial in that it saves moisture that would otherwise flood to the sea and saves it as snow. My following post will discuss my moderation method and the evidence I have gathered to demonstrate that the method works.

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Before moving on to talk about my moderation method, a few words about how I chose the the term aquariusradar. Aquarius is the deity of the ancients frequently called the water bearer and the so named constellation is often depicted as a figure carrying a water urn from which water pours. Sometimes good sometimes bad, depending on the ancient civilization, I prefer to think of it as in Ancient Egypt:  In Egyptian Mythology, people who populated dry lands thought of Aquarius as a charitable deity who made rainfall when they needed it for farming. Hey, maybe a little over the top, but I had to call it something.

As the name implies, radar (microwave energy) is used to transport water (rain) from an undesirable location (flood) to desirable storage (snowpack, urban greenbelt, aquifer recharge, etc.) And just as obvious, it won't work unless it's already raining. It stands to reason if the coast is receiving gentle soaking rain, it won't be used. But if flood is occurring on coastal rivers , then it can be used to transport excess rain to higher elevations or further away from the coast to possible storage. Next- the scientific background.

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In the 1960s, Dr. Edward Lorenz, pioneer weather researcher, discovered the important math that later helped develop and  defined the physics of chaos theory; later responsible for the ideas about fractals and popularly called the butterfly effect. Most of this is really beyond my scope and grasp of mathematics. But the important point about why weather is impacted by Lorenz's discovery is how much weather is controlled by dynamics and that the biggest dynamic rain making cloud is the cumulonimbus (CN ) thunderstorm.

Dr. Lorenz discovered that in natural fast developing systems like CN clouds, that are best described by dynamic non-linear equations, tiny changes at the start of a chain of repetitive actions has large effects on the final outcome. 

Microwave energy can heat (speed up) water molecules. Water for tea and coffee can be heated to the boiling point with the home microwave. At a much greater distance, the aquariusradar can heat the water molecules at the base of the developing CN cloud only a tiny amount. Repeated over and over, that tiny amount of heating inhibits the coalescence of water molecules around seed dust particles, ice crystals, etc. and the growth of targeted CN clouds is slowed and stopped altogether in continued for a long time.

Aquariusradar slows the growth of targeted CN and inhibits rainfall. The next post will discuss how that inhibition and competition from neighboring CN clouds can be put to advantage.

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The best way to blunt the forces of drought is water storage. Here are some ways aquariusradar can be used to store water while helping a poor weather condition.

Snowpack enhancement is available all along the West coast of Washington, Oregon, and California. The intense rainfall of Infrequent atmospheric rivers (Pineapple Express) can flood the coastal areas of the western coast.  Mountain snow is often the blessing of the atmospheric rivers as it encounters high peaks.

Aquariusradar targets  CN cells as they approach and cross over the coastline and diminish the rainfall of the CN cell over the flood zone. By heating the water molecules at the base of the cloud by a tiny amount, adiabatic leverage is obtained. The condensation rate is slowed and the latent heat is preserved in the water molecule. The rapid growth of CN is dependent on available moisture and the released latent heat of condensation. CN clouds rarely occur alone. CN clouds compete for moisture and when a CN cloud has inhibited growth, surrounding CN cells will take up the extra available moisture. In this example, those storms not tempered and which continue towards the elevation of the snow line of coastal mountains will produce more snow. Rainfall is moved from flood to snowpack storage.

 

CN1.png.5379d3d680353f4bf6c379cce970f668.png

  

 

CN2.png

Edited by AquariusRadar
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The sketches used in the previous post are also used to illustrate the urban stormwater abatement case. In recent days Nashville, Tn. was pummeled again by training CN thunderstorms that flooded the city. Aquariusradar, with a narrow pencil beam antenna pattern, radiates microwave energy directly on the base of the CN cloud headed for the city center. That thunderstorm is tempered such that it produces less rainfall on the rooftops and concrete of the city center that cannot absorb any water. The flood waters of the city center rush out and aggravate the flooding on the city suburbs. Other CN cells outside the city center take up the added available moisture and grow to produce more rainfall in the greenbelt or aquifer recharge that surrounds the city. The total local rainfall is unchanged. The rainfall is moved from flood to storage.

Using cloud seeding to "make it rain" is cheating mother nature by taking someone's rainfall. Cloudseeding is weather modification.

Aquariusradar cannot make it rain more. It can only move that excess rainfall to storage. Aquariusradar is weather moderation.

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Jumping ahead of several more applications (hail suppression and tornado tempering), I think aquariusradar could be used in combating the western states drought. Several days ago, an upper level low developed off the west coast. The low is maintaining and perhaps deepening as it moves northeast. Some CN lightening is observed on the north side of the circulation. In the same time period, a large patch of moisture is streaming away from the ITCZ and is now southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. Looks like maybe some of that moisture could eventually be pulled into the circulation. Is this a developing Pineapple Express as illustrated in this NOAA graphic?...or will the blocking high pressure squash this as well?

PineappleExpress.png

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Using the low level IR water vapor images as reference, that low pressure trough has survived and now has pushed down as far as just north of the Hawaiian Islands. Kinda looks like the branch tributary jet shown in the NOAA diagrams. The progress might be similar to the "3-5 days" sketch in the NOAA scenario. Trouble is there is no big plume of low level moisture near the W 170 degree region. Some small amount of low level moisture is seen in Southern California- just enough to keep lenticular clouds downwind of the Mt. Whitney, Russell, Williams area. Maybe the larger moisture plume near W 150 will be intercepted as the trough continues south. Waiting to see with fingers crossed.

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The scenario can’t make any progress as the MJO is in a negative phase for the 160-170 West longitude area so the ITCZ in this zone is very quiet. No moisture is being drawn north. That patch of low level water vapor off the Central California coast isn’t receiving any nourishment and the low circulation can’t shoulder its’ way east as the high continues to block the flow. The dry air of the high is more massive than the thin clouds and water vapor. The dry air of the blocking high desiccates the light cloud cover at the coastal edge.

If some heavy weight clouds, like CN, were in the mix of northward moisture flow from the ITCZ,  the low pressure could grow to a powerful storm that pushes the high out of the path and continue on the east- northeast track it naturally follows. In order to grow into a powerful storm, the low cyclone needs more moisture and the aquariusradar could provide that moisture by operating from ships at sea.  With the addition of GPS and modern NWS type radar pointing information, the technology is available as seen in the photo of this NASA ship used during the Apollo program of the 1960s.

By tempering CN cells from the south side of the storm line of the ITCZ in the 150-170 West area, when the MJO is in the positive phase, CN cells that are to the north take up that extra moisture. Aquariusradar slows the growth of CN cells and keeps the water aloft and ultimately prevents the cell from raining down the majority of water lifted by the natural forces and instability of the ITCZ so that the anvil tops of CN cells can leave the area of the ITCZ containing massive amounts of water aloft. The Hadley cell circulation steers these water packets into the domain of the low and provides for growth. The low can now pierce the high pressure shield and rain to the west coast.

There is a little more activity in the 170 longitude of the ITCZ this morning and the MJO may be approaching positive in that area. It is cold in Europe and the cool in Eastern US. Winter in the Northern Hemisphere is not quite over.

Apolloship.png

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The thunderstorm activity at 170 West of the ITCZ has increased so the MJO for the area is turning positive. It is at this limited time window that the aquariusradar would be most effective. The natural forces of the active ITCZ loft huge volumes of water to great heights with CN and subsequently the aquariusradar, operating from the southern side of the line of storms, slows or stops that growth just prior to the start of maximum rainfall.  The CN storms further north take up the available moisture. At the northern extremity of the ITCZ storms, aquariusradar targets these enhanced storms.  A large quantity of moisture is held aloft as the storms leave the area of the active ITCZ. Held aloft, an increased portion of the rainfall of the ITCZ is transported north by the  Hadely cell circulation.

This would require two or more ships equipped with the aquariusradar. A nighttime RGB image of lightning immersed in the CN multiplex of CN storms near 170 West.

LightninginCN_ITCZ.png

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That low pressure area far off the western Washington coast waxes and wanes and doesn't seem to make any improved development. However, the 3-7 day forecast surface map shows good development by the day 6- 21 April- with a 986mb surface center. That could be a player if it can get far enough east. No moisture is going north to nourish that low. Seems unlikely to break through the barricade high pressure.

Good moisture flow from the ITCZ 145 W area as the sub-tropical jet throws the moisture to the extreme southern portions of the US. That's helping big rain in the Gulf Coast and a healthy patch of storms in south Texas. Even without a jet to stream moisture north, if more moisture were to leave the ITCZ 170 W area, the Hadely Cell circulation could put added moisture in the domain of the low, creating a strong storm system capable of busting through the blocking high. While dry air of the high is more massive than water vapor alone, the shear weight of dense- (condensed) water particles in strong storms cells can displace the dry air of the high. Strong enough to wedge the high out of the way and move eastward.

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The daily update to the surface map has advanced the development of the low to day 3 of the 3-7 day forecast (18 april). The center pressure predicted to be 992mb. There is a little moisture leaving the ITCZ 160 W area and heading north towards Hawaii. Clouds over and downwind of tall volcanos of the big island.

 

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While we all keep praying for the inside slider that could bring some rain to the state, the reality is that California has nose dived into widespread and long term drought. Incredible as it sounds, the only remedies coming from Washington and Sacramento are those goofy ideas once thought to make a difference; put a brick in the toilet tank, replace the grass with cacti, etc. Helps a tiny bit but California needs big water-lots and lots of water.

The ongoing infrastructure arguments in Washington should include requests for water infrastructure and research. The economy of the nation is highly dependent upon the success of the California economy. Even if you live in a waterlogged state, write or call your representative and urge them to do something big for water in California and the western states- an aqueduct, another dam and reservoir, desalinization plant?

California probably has more scientists than any other state. Sadly, too many have eyes in the sky-spending billions to find out if there is water on the planet Mars. Finding more water for California would be a bettor effort.   

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The hulking high pressure of the Eastern Pacific off California never allows development of any cyclonic activity off the California coast. The lows always are suppressed. The ITCZ is not feeding moisture into the area. If aquariusradar were able to enrich the Hadley cell flow with more water, the descending air of the horse latitudes off the California coast would be lighter as water vapor H2O is less massive than the nitrogen dominated dry air. Cyclones could then push eastward. The ITCZ in the 160-170 W zone is very quiet during these drought periods. Targeting thunderstorms in this zone could increase the moisture flowing northeast with the Hadley cell circulation. 

Perhaps aquariusradar must prove its worth with more dramatic continental moderation control- tempering hail and tornado producing CN cells-before the Western drought idea can advance. Next-important applications- hail and tornado suppression.  

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On 4/17/2021 at 8:15 PM, AquariusRadar said:

While we all keep praying for the inside slider that could bring some rain to the state, the reality is that California has nose dived into widespread and long term drought. Incredible as it sounds, the only remedies coming from Washington and Sacramento are those goofy ideas once thought to make a difference; put a brick in the toilet tank, replace the grass with cacti, etc. Helps a tiny bit but California needs big water-lots and lots of water.

The ongoing infrastructure arguments in Washington should include requests for water infrastructure and research. The economy of the nation is highly dependent upon the success of the California economy. Even if you live in a waterlogged state, write or call your representative and urge them to do something big for water in California and the western states- an aqueduct, another dam and reservoir, desalinization plant?

California probably has more scientists than any other state. Sadly, too many have eyes in the sky-spending billions to find out if there is water on the planet Mars. Finding more water for California would be a bettor effort.   

Good luck building anymore dams and reservoirs with the environ-mentals and the EPA.  The water system built 80-100 years ago out west was built for half the population that lives there now.  Why politicians and environ-mentals keep burying their heads in the dust is beyond explanation.  Let's spend trillions over the next 20 years "fixing" the climate to what is virtually the same as what we have now, for the sake of feeling g good about one's self.  Keep stealing the Water from the Colorado River for an overpopulated part of the country that doesn't understand that the well will run dry , not from climate change but from abuse . 

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Well a low pressure system did finally clip through the northeast corner of the high with the help of the jet stream and get to the North California coast. Some decent rain around Eureka area and mountain snow in the Trinity Alps, Shasta and Lassen, and the Sierra as far south as Yosemite. The initial moisture source is the ITCZ but via a long and circuitous route-up and over the central Pacific were the jet stream and developing cyclone funneled it down the West coast of the continent. Not from the southern Pineapple Express route. Pretty much like a normal winter storm-in late April?

Generally, this is a case where aquariusradar could not be used-no coastal flooding. Except that area just off the coast of Eureka, Ca. could have been tempered to transport more of the rain falling in the ocean to onshore. It would be tempting to target east to west trending storms just a few miles off shore and thus allow smaller CN just north or south that also are moving west to east to deliver more rain to land. Aquariusradar would transport and spread out some of that ocean rainfall to land. But a danger of local flooding might be possible so close monitoring must be exercised-stop if any indication of flooding developed.

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OK back to more uses for the aquariusradar......

AquariusRadars can temper the huge CN storms that produce hail and tornados. Modern NWS information can accurately predict the location of hail and tornado warning areas with enough time to allow mobile AquariusRadars to be set up in advance such that the storms can be intercepted and tempered; an EF5 storm may be reduced to a less harmful EF1?

 This tempering can be achieved as most violent CN storms are surrounded by competing but smaller storms. When the big tornado storm growth is stunted by the AquariusRadars microwave beam, the surrounding smaller storms take up the  water saturated air that would otherwise fuel the giant storm. The small storms grow while the big storm is restrained; if the tempering is sustained, the storm would be reduced below the dangerous thunderstorm level. The tempering of large mature storms will result in greater micro downbursts of cold heavy air and increased straight-line winds. Straight-line thunderstorm winds are dangerous but preferred over tornados and damaging hail.

It might be possible to have mobile microwave emitters mounted on trucks to follow and radiate upon the tornado much like storm trackers film as they chase/intercept  storms as they move.

Large metro areas with concentrated populations might have permanent fixed AquariusRadars to protect the city from tornados and hail.

Note April 29- Texas/OK metro areas hit with 3" size hail storms. Auto damage broken windshields-Insurance losses in the tens of millions. Permanent acquriusradar stations in large metro areas could have alleviated the loss.

 

Edited by AquariusRadar
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 A seven Billion USD$ 7,000,000,000 part of the infrastructure plan for water infrascructure has been approved by the US Senate and will likely be signed in to the law. Absolutely nothing about new water sources for the western states. Washington totally blind to the ensuing drought disaster.

Edited by AquariusRadar
added "for water infrastructure"
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I am not as scientifically advanced as I don't have access to all the tools but 1Pacific Redwood and Mike Morales (Even better) can share and explain what's going on.  TPTB are causing storm after storm to just 'vanish' and that is caused by the barium and other heavy metals preventing particulates or water droplets from being able to form. Similar to the LA Smog effect of the 1960s/70s but on a widespread scale instead of a localized area.

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On 4/29/2021 at 4:48 PM, AquariusRadar said:

 A seven Billion USD$ 7,000,000,000 part of the infrastructure plan for water infrascructure has been approved by the US Senate and will likely be signed in to the law. Absolutely nothing about new water sources for the western states. Washington totally blind to the ensuing drought disaster.

Of course. Then they can swindle our tax paying dollars for more junk and they are just patsies for the much deeper Agenda 2030. These fires we had were literal dry runs.

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